Safety And Risk

Safety and Risk Study includes :

•   Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA)
•  Health Risk Assessment (HRA)
•  Journey Risk Assessment (JRA)
•  HSE Design and Safety Case
•  Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Assessment (EERA)
•  Emergency Survivability System Assessment (ESSA)
•  Temporary Refuge Impairment Analysis (TRIA)
•  Dropped Object Analysis
•  Fire & Explosion Risk Assessment (FERA)
•  Hazard Identification (HAZID) Study
•  Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Study
•  Safety Integrity Level (SIL/IPF) Classification & Verification
•  Safety Philosophies
•  Process Safety Audits
•  Human Factor Engineering (HFE) Study

safety and risxk




What is QRA?
Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a structured approach to identifying and understanding the risks associated with hazardous activities such as the operation of an industrial plant.

The assessment starts by taking inventory of potential hazards, their likelihood, and consequences. The quantified risks are then assessed by comparison against defined criteria.

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) provides valuable insights into the features of the industrial plant, highlighting those aspects where failures may result in harm to operators, members of the public, the environment and or the asset itself. QRA provides a basis for decision-making in the design and operation of the plant, and may also be required to legally show 'fitness to operate'.

Why Do QRA?
QRA provides input on safety issues during the design, operation and regulation of hazardous activities.

In addition, QRA provides a rational basis for monitoring risks and providing specific decision-making guidance:
   •  Acts as decision aid regarding whether the risks need to be reduced
   •  Propose targets for risk reduction measures
   •  Design basis for fire and blast protection as well as emergency planning and training
   •  Aid in the selection of the most appropriate design concept
   •  Find the most cost-effective ways to reduce risk
   •  Assist with As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) demonstrations
   •  Identify safety-critical procedures and equipment


What is ESSA?
Emergency System Survivability Analysis (ESSA) involves systematic review of the survivability of the platform's main emergency systems against major accidental events. The following typical emergency systems will be evaluated:
   •  Fire and gas detection and control system
   •  Active and passive fire protection system
   •  Emergency power supply
   •  Emergency Shutdown System (ESD)
   •  Vessel communication system (including alarms and status lights)

Why Do ESSA?
   •  The ESSA process is intended to assess the survivability of the critical emergency systems during the MAH in which they are required to perform their function.
     Identify the emergency systems installed on platform.
   •  Assess the ability of the emergency system to survive MAHs for sufficient time to allow them to complete their designated functions.
   •  Recommend potential risk reduction options where necessary, in order to increase the survivability of the emergency systems.


What is HAZID?
HAZID study is a tool for hazard identification, used early in a process as soon as process flow diagrams, draft heat and mass balances, and plot layouts are available. Existing site infrastructure, weather, and geotechnical data are also required, these being a source of external hazards.

The method is a design-enabling tool, acting to help organize the HSE deliverables in a project. The structured brainstorming technique typically involves designer and client personnel engineering disciplines, project management, commissioning and operations. The main major findings and hazard ratings help to deliver HSE compliance, and form part of the project Risk Register required by many licensing authorities.

Why Do HAZID Study?
A well-organized HAZID study activity will deliver a good identification of hazards and safeguards at an early stage in the design of a facility. Team output helps unsure that:
   •  HSE hazards are revealed at an early stage in the project, before significant costs have been incurred
   •  Hazards are recorded and actioned so that they can be avoided, mitigated or highlighted


What is HAZOP?
HAZOP is a well-proven structured team-based method for hazard identification at process design completion or for planned modifications. The technique makes detailed examination of the process and engineering intention of new or existing facilities to assess the hazard potential of operation outside the design intention, or malfunction of individual items of equipment and their consequential effects on the facility as a whole.

HAZOP is led by an experienced facilitator. For oil & gas project, a core team would typically include personnel from Process, Instruments, and Operations and it might require the involvement of process technologist, environmental specialists and corporate Health & Safety and Environment (HSE) staff for some parts of the work.

Why Do HAZOP Study?
Comprehensive hazard identification is the cornerstone of effective risk management since if a hazard has not been identified then measures cannot be put in a place to mitigate the risk. A hazard that has been overlooked can have a significant impact on the overall success of the venture. An effective HAZOP provides the most penetrating design review, covering safety, environment, operations and maintenance.

HAZOP ensures that:
   •  Potential deviations from intended design function are identified and corrected
   •  HSE process and equipment hazard are revealed
   •  Actions for necessary process or instrumentation improvements can planned
   •  Action responses are auditable by Managements and Legislative Inspectorates


What is SIL?
SIL stands for Safety Integrity Level. A SIL is a measure of safety system performance, or probability of failure on demand (PFD) for a SIF or SIS. There are four discrete integrity levels associated with SIL. The higher the SIL level, the lower the probability of failure on demand for the safety system and the better the system performance. It is important to also note that as the SIL level increases, typically the cost and complexity of the system also increase.

The ANSI/ISA S84.01 and the IEC 61508 standards suggest that the effects of the random failures must beevaluated in a quantitative way by utilizing Safety Integrity Levels (SIL). SIL analysis have a few different approach, two of the most prominent are LOPA and Risk matrix.

The diagram below displays the target failure frequency for an operating safety function and its safety integrity level. IPS has technical staff dedicated to helping clients comply with the ANSI/ISA 584.01 standard and IEC 61508 to demonstrate their safety management systems and to build strong justifications.

Safety Integrity Level
Target Average Probability of Failure on
Demand (PFD)
Target Risk Reduction
4 >10-5 to <10-4 >10,000 to 5100,000
3 >10-4 to <10-3 >1,000 to 510,000
2 >10-3 to <10-2 >100 to 51,000
1 >10-2 to <10-1 >10 to 5100



Related items